Trends in cardiovascular risk factors are also known to have been reduced on average with age, although the mechanism and role of the age-related decline in cardiac risk factors have yet to be determined. In conclusion, there is increasing evidence that the physical and social well-being of aging animals is compromised by the risk associated with age-associated changes in cardiac vascular disease. It is therefore vital that current treatments be developed that may reduce the risk of this disease by helping to reduce the risk in the long term. The current study is a key step to this goal, as the treatment of older cats by conventional heart therapies now appears to contribute to their rapid declines in risk over the next few decades. Based on the results of this research, strategies that combine heart rate control, anaerobic fitness training, and exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk risk are being considered for older cats who have also lost their capacity for survival after cardiac events to maintain the normal distribution of cardiovascular functions, such as heart rate. Additional treatment strategies should include the development of an oxygenated heart chamber (ESC), such as using high-efficiency ventilators and a mechanical capacity to generate maximal oxygen uptake (VMOV) without having to rely on equipment, for exercise therapy, or for the use of intravenous and non-invasive heart-rehabilitation therapy that has improved in recent years. The same studies also reported higher risk in persons who were in the same race and/or had no previous smoking status, for people born during World War II and for people who were on tobacco, at both the time when those individuals were exposed to nicotine. When comparing the associations between smoking, smoking history, and heart disease risk factors with mortality, the rates of premature deaths were in fact lower for those who did not smoke. In fact a decrease of 23 percent for people who did smoke, and the 20 percent decline in all deaths of those who did not smoke in the four epidemiological studies, was not discernible. In an effort to test these hypotheses, the authors screened and checked for effects of exposure to nicotine among people who were married, for whom the health education programs were not used and for whom the association was strong. The studies were conducted in the Netherlands and in the United Kingdom between 1987 and 1992. In the Netherlands, health professionals assessed the health status of the people they visited in the preceding year. This survey included health reports, education, and medical records.